[Avodah] [Bais haVaad] Police Protection: Are Officers Liable for Injuries They Inflict?
micha at aishdas.org
Thu Jul 2 15:58:34 PDT 2020
I think this topic has crossed all of our minds lately.
The Bais HaVaad Halacha Center
Police Protection: Are Officers Liable for Injuries They Inflict?
Adapted from the writings of Dayan Yitzhak Grossman
July 2, 2020
On June 12, Atlanta Police Department officers Garrett Rolfe and Devin
Brosnan were attempting to handcuff Rayshard Brooks and arrest him for
driving while under the influence of alcohol. Brooks wrestled with the
officers, seized Brosnan's Taser, and attempted to flee. With Rolfe
pursuing him, Brooks turned and fired the Taser toward Rolfe. Rolfe
then shot at Brooks three times, striking him twice in the back and
killing him. Rolfe was subsequently charged with felony murder and ten
In considering Rolfe's possible culpability for killing Brooks, the first
issue is whether the shooting was justified as self-defense. We do not
consider here this specific question, but only the general question of
the liability of a duly authorized agent of the state for the use of
force resulting in injury or death.
Agents of the court
In the Mishnah, Abba Sha'ul rules that a father who strikes his son,
a teacher who disciplines his student, and an agent of the court, who
accidentally kill, are not subject to the law of exile (galus).
The Tosefta rules similarly with regard to civil liability for nonlethal
injury: The father, the teacher, and the agent of the court are all
exempt, unless the force used is "more than is appropriate," in which
case they are liable. An alternate formulation appears elsewhere in
the Tosefta: The agent is exempt if he injures inadvertently (b'shogeg),
but liable if he injures deliberately (b'meizid), "out of concern
for tikun olam." R' Shimon ben Tzemach Duran explains that these
two formulations are equivalent: If the force used is "appropriate"
but nevertheless results in injury, the agent is considered shogeg,
but if it is "more than is appropriate," he is considered meizid. He
also explains that the liability in the case of meizid is in accordance
with the normal laws of torts, and the concern for tikun olam is the
rationale for the exemption of shogeg, i.e., Chazal absolved a shogeg
from liability despite the principle of adam muad l'olam, by which people
are usually held liable for torts committed b'shogeg.
It would seem that according to this approach, "shogeg" here has its
general meaning of an act that while inadvertent, nevertheless has an
element of negligence to it, and so would engender liability were it not
for the concern for tikun olam, since it would seem absurd for an agent
of the court who carried out his duty entirely properly to be liable
for its consequences (were it not for tikun olam), any more than the
court itself and its agents would be liable as tortfeasors for the very
imposition of punishment such as lashes or execution upon a miscreant!
In apparent contradiction to the assumption of the Tosefta that an
agent of the court is not authorized to use more force than necessary
to carry out his duty stands a ruling of Rabbeinu Yerucham ben Meshulam,
accepted by some poskim, that an agent of the court who strikes the body
or damages the property of a recalcitrant person is exempt even if he
was able to accomplish his goal by other means.
It seems that this opinion understands that the availability of nonviolent
means does not automatically render the use of violence "more than is
appropriate." Thus in Rabbeinu Yerucham's case, although alternative
nonviolent means were available, once the agent chose to utilize violence,
the level of force he used was the minimum necessary to accomplish his
goal, whereas in the case of the Tosefta, the level of force utilized was
gratuitously high. Alternatively, some contemporary writers consider it
self-evident that Rabbeinu Yerucham concedes that the authorities have
no right to use "excessive" and "unreasonable" force relative to the
goal of preserving the rule of law. Perhaps, then, when the Tosefta
assigns liability where the force used was "more than is appropriate,"
it is referring to just such "excessive" and "unreasonable" force.
In any event, other poskim disagree with Rabbeinu Yerucham's ruling and
maintain that an agent of the court is only exempt from liability for
the use of force if he had no other means to achieve his goal.
The exemption of an agent of the court only applies provided force was
used in order to compel compliance with the court's directives, but not
when motivated by anger.
Some contemporary writers assume that a police officer would have the same
status as the "agent of the court" discussed by Chazal and would therefore
be exempt from liability insofar as his use of force was appropriate.
Makkos 2:2. Cf. Rambam and Ra'avad Hilchos Rotzeiach Ushmiras
Hanefesh 5:6, and Bnei V'lechem Yehudah, Bnei Shmuel, Gur Aryeh,
Hamei'ir La'aretz, Kruv Mimshach, Ma'asei Rokeach, Mirkeves Hamishneh,
Ein Tarshish, and Shufrei D'Yaakov ibid.; Shu"t Shevus Yaakov cheilek
3 siman 140; R. Yehuda Zoldan, Tzidkas Yehuda V'Yisrael, siman 6 os 1;
R. Moshe Taragin, Shliach Bais Din Sheharag Beshogeg.
One version of the Tosefta contains a position contrary to that of
Abba Sha'ul; see Or Sameiach Hilchos Rotzeiach 5:6 and Tzidkas Yehuda
Tosefta Bava Kama 9:3.
Ibid. Gittin 3:13.
Shu"t Tashbatz cheilek 3 siman 82.
This is certainly true according to the poskim that maintain that the
principle of adam muad l'olam does not apply to oness gamur (see Tosafos
Bava Kama 27b s.v. uShmuel amar; Shulchan Aruch C.M. 378:1-3 and Shach
ibid. s.k. 1).
Sefer Maysharim Nesiv 31 cheilek 2 p. 92 second column, cited by Sema
C.M. siman 8 s.k. 25 and Ba'er Heitev ibid. s.k. 8.
Adv. Yaakov Shapiro and Dr. Michael Vigoda, Shimush B'choach al Yedei
Hamishtarah, n. 33.
Toras Chaim Bava Kama end of daf 28; Shevus Yaakov cheilek 1 siman 180,
cited in Pis'chei Teshuvah ibid. s.k. 6; Sha'ar Mishpat ibid. s.k. 2;
Aruch Hashulchan ibid. se'if 6; Yeshuos Yisrael ibid. Ein Mishpat s.k. 2
and Chukas Hamishpat s.k. 6. Erech Shai ibid. se'if 5 concludes that
the matter is a s'feika d'dina. Cf. Halacha Pesukah ibid. p. 86 n. 214.
Shu"t Ra'anach (Yerushalayim 5720) siman 111 p. 475. Cf. Shevus Ya'akov
cheilek 3 end of siman 140 and Shimush B'choach al Yedei Hamishtarah.
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