[Avodah] How do Chabad deal with the Amen of Krias Shema

Chana Luntz Chana at kolsassoon.org.uk
Wed Feb 27 04:22:16 PST 2013

RAM writes:

>Without me seeing Rav Yosef's reasoning, it is difficult to comment.
However, working just from what has been presented here -- namely, that ALL
of >these benedictions are in the same category, and he does not seem to be
singling out the last one just prior to the Sh'ma -- I would suspect that
the >problem has nothing to do with the Sefardic reluctance for women to say
a bracha on a mitzvah that they're exempt from, but to the larger Sefardic
>reluctance about ANY bracha which is not a clear and direct obligation. The
most famous example of this might be their not saying Hagefen on the second
>and fourth cups at the Seder.

These are one and the same - the reason brought by those who hold so for
women not saying a bracha on a mitzvah that they are exempt from is because
of the larger reluctance about any bracha which is not a clear and direct
obligation such as the second and forth cups at the Seder.

> Similarly, if Rav Yosef is saying that women should not say ANY of the
brachos between Barchu and Amidah, then it is more likely related to whether
or >not those brachos constitute a required tefila, and less likely related
to Shma itself.

Here is (part of) footnote 6 on the Yalkut Yosef hilchot Kriat Shema and its
blessing letter 6:

"...And even though there is to say that the Brachot of Yotzer v'ahavat olam
and v'emet v'yatziv are not brachot of kriyat shema, since behold we do not
bless "asher kidishanu b'mitzvotav vitzivanu l'kroa kriat shema and like the
Tur writes siman 59) in the name of the Rosh.  In any event the opinion of
the Rambam and the Ramban and the Rema and the Aruchot HaChaim, that their
din is like the din of brachot of kriyat shema.  And so writes the talmidim
of Rabbanu Yonah perek shlishi sheachlu (Brachot 45b) and the Rashash in his
teshuva (siman 438).  And thus one who is exempt from kriyat shema is exempt
from the brachot of kriyat shema.  And further since behold also to the
brachot of kriyat shema there is a fixed time, and they are in the category
of mitzvot aseh shehazman grama women are exempt, and like was written in
Tosphot (Brachot 20b, megila 24a) that also for a d'rabbanan this rule
applies.  And so is clear in our matter in the Magen Avraham and in the
Shulchan Aruch of the gaon Rabbi Zalman (siman 70 si'if katan 1) and all
this is set out clearly in Yabiat Omer chelek 3 (chelek Orech Chaim siman
6).  And see also in Yachave Da'at (chelek 1 at the end of siman 78 and in
the ha'arah there, and in chelek 3 siman 3).  And push aside the Shut
Mechazeh Eliyahu to the gaon Rabbi Pesach Eliyahu Frank shlita that I saw
there (in siman 16) that he has a different position, and according to him
only the brachot that have in them "vitzivanu" women are forbidden in them
for mitzvot aseh shehazman grama, according to the Rambam and his
supporters, but brachot of shevach there is not a problem etc see there.
And I stand by my position, that even though the objection from that which
they say "vitzivanu" is a great objection against the opinion of Rabbanu
Tam, like the Smag writes and the hagahot Mamoni, but even without this
reason there is to prohibit according to the opinion of the Rambam and the
gaonim that prohibit a bracha sheaino tzricha that it is d'orita.  And so is
clear from the words of Rabbanu Manoach (in perek 2 of hilchot shofar
halacha 1 page 30a) that even according to the opinion of the chachmei zfat
that women make blessings on mitzvot aseh shehazman grama, it is not logical
to say this, that even if you say that the halacha is like Rabbi Yosi that
we do not prevent women from blowing [shofar], thise werods are only in
relation to blowing on Shabbat [he means Yom Tov here] that is only because
of shvut [rabbinical prohibition], but for the matter of a bracha l'vatala
in which there is in it a prohibition from the Torah that it says lo tisa et
shem Hashem Elokecha l'shav, like we say in brachot (33a) there is no doubt
that it is prohibited for them to bless.  Therefore women take a lulav
without a bracha, and the same for the other mitzvot shehazman grama.  And
we establish that because of bracha sheino tzricha touches it, that it is an
issur from the Torah according to the opinion of the Rambam and the geonim.
And so writes the Ramban in teshuva (siman 87) that the heter for women to
bless on mitzvot aseh shehazman grama this is because the prohibition of a
bracha sheino tzricha is only d'rabbanan.  And he merited to  this
understanding Rabbi Shlomo Kluger in Chachmat Shlomo (siman 8 si'if 9) that
according to the opinion of those who say that the issur of a bracha sheano
tzricha is from the Torah, it is forbidden for a woman to bless on mitzvot
aseh shehazman grama.  And the Rema (siman 589) who writes that it is the
custom of women to bless against his will to say that the reason is that all
that is the way of bracha there is not in this an issur from the Torah, and
the prohibition of a bracha sheino tzricha is rabbinic and the text is an
asmachta b'alma and like the Tosphot writes (Rosh Hashana 33a) ..."

>As a side point, but very relevant: What does Rav Yosef say for a woman who
chooses to say Pesukei Dzimra? Does she say or omit Baruch Sheamar and
>Yishtabach? Any why?

He also says to omit shem and malchut for the brachot of psukei d'zimra

Note by the way that while Rav Ovadiah holds that if in fact men have the
custom to say birchas kriyas shema during fourth hour after netz then they
do have on whom to rely, but after the fourth hour it is also assur for the
men to say the brachos of kriyas shema.

Akiva Miller



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