[Avodah] How does early Shabbos work? How can I make kiddush if it is still Friday afternoon?H

Prof. L. Levine llevine at stevens.edu
Mon Jun 24 06:21:11 PDT 2019

>From today's OU Kosher Halacha Yomis

A. There are three explanations why kiddush can be recited Friday afternoon, after accepting an early Shabbos:

  *   Shulchan Aruch (OC 261:2) writes that one is required to add from Friday onto Shabbos (mosifin michol al hakodesh). The Magen Avrohom         (OC 261:9) maintains that this is a positive Torah commandment. The basis for this is as follows: The Torah (Vayikra 23:32) writes that one must begin Yom Kippur while it is still the ninth day of Tishrei. Since the pasuk refers to Yom Kippur as Shabbos (Shabbos Shabbaton), we infer that the requirement to begin early applies to every Shabbos as well. Because tosefos Shabbos (the added portion of Shabbos) has a Biblical status, it follows that one who accepts Shabbos early can recite kiddush during this time as well.

  *   The Mordechai disagrees with the above and holds that tosefos Shabbos is valid only on a Rabbinic level. If so, how can one recite kiddush, which is a Biblical requirement, during a period when Shabbos is only Rabbinic? The Magen Avrohom (267:1) addresses this question. We will not present the Magen Avrohom’s response because it requires explanation and commentary. We encourage you to explore the Magen Avrohom on your own.

  *   The Rambam (Hilchos Shabbos 29:11) writes that one may recite kiddush even if it is not yet Shabbos, because the mitzvah to remember Shabbos can be accomplished even a short time before Shabbos begins.

The above discussion relates to reciting kiddush Friday afternoon. With respect to the Shabbos meal, the Magen Avrohom (267:1) quotes the Shelah and the Maharal who maintain that, although one may begin the Shabbos seuda on Friday afternoon, one should make sure to eat a kezayis (of bread) after nightfall. The requirement to eat three seudos on Shabbos is derived from the repetition of the word “ha’yom” (today) three times in the Torah. Accordingly, a kezayis of bread must be eaten on the actual day of Shabbos and not during the tosefos (the addition).

The Magen Avrohom and Mishna Berura (267:5) write that it is preferable to follow the Shelah and Maharal, by eating a kezayis of challah after nightfall.

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